降糖药

降糖药:时间决定一切!

根据药物的作用机理和病人对药物反应的不同,合理调整服药时间,不仅可以提高疗效,尚可以避免毒副作用和不良反应。

同一种降糖药物,不同的时间给药,效果明显不同。一位2型糖尿病患者,医嘱给予优降糖2.5mg,一天两次口服,一周后复查血糖,无明显降低,即改为5mg一天两次,一周后血糖仍不下降。且病人控制了饮食并进行了适当锻炼。经详细询问,原来降糖药均是餐后服用的。改为饭前半小时服后,血糖很快降到了正常。经研究优降糖饭前1片等于饭后3片的疗效。目前常用口服降糖药物主要有磺脲类、双胍类、α糖苷酶抑制剂和餐时血糖调节剂,其作用机制各不相同,因此要求服药时间也不一样,如果服药时间不正确,很难起到降低血糖的作用。

磺脲类降糖药主要是通过与胰岛β细胞膜上磺脲类药物受体结合,关闭ATP敏感钾通道,细胞内钾离子外流减少,细胞膜去极化,开放钙通道,细胞内钙离子增加,促进胰岛素释放。口服0.5~1小时开始起作用,2~6小时作用最强。因此餐前30分钟服,至作用最强时间与进食后血糖升高水平时间相一致,从而起到有效的降糖作用。目前常用的有甲苯磺丁脲(D860)、格列本脲(优降糖)和格列吡嗪(美吡哒)等,均应餐前半小时服。

餐时血糖调整药,如瑞格列奈(诺和龙)、那格列奈,也是作用于β细胞,刺激胰岛素分泌。但其作用机制不同于磺脲类。在血糖浓度低时不刺激胰岛素分泌,或血糖浓度恢复正常,作用立即停止。本类药起效快,作用时间短暂,餐前半小时或进餐后给药可能引起低血糖,故应在餐前10~20分钟口服。服药必吃饭,服药不吃饭,起不到降糖作用。

双胍类,如二甲双胍(甲福明),可增加外周组织(如肌肉)对葡萄糖的摄取和利用,通过抑制糖原异生和糖原分解,可降低糖尿病时的高肝糖生成率。它不影响血清胰岛素水平,对正常范围血糖无降低作用,不引起低血糖反应,从而对服药时间要求不强,如从使餐后血糖不宜升高角度考虑,应餐前服,但由于很多患者对这类药物的胃肠道反应较重,可改为餐中或餐后服用为佳。

α葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂是通过抑制小肠黏膜上皮细胞表面的α葡萄糖苷酶(如麦芽糖、淀粉酶、蔗糖酶)而影响碳水化合物的吸收降低餐后高血糖,单用不引起低血糖。尤适用于空腹血糖正常而餐后血糖明显升高者。该类药只有与进食第一口饭时同时嚼服,才能起到较好的治疗作用。常用药物为阿卡波糖(拜糖平)。

由此可见,根据药物的作用机理和病人对药物反应的不同,合理调整服药时间,不仅可以提高疗效,尚可以避免毒副作用和不良反应。

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