色斑

“色斑”家族全面曝光 看你属于哪一族

其实我们平时提到的面部的色斑并不是简单的一种疾病,而是很多不同的疾病,这些不同色斑的治疗方法也有所不同,而且不是所有色斑都可以靠祛斑产品来帮助解决问题的。只有在认识了你脸上的斑是什么斑之后,才能采取更合适的方式祛斑。那么,最常见的色斑包括哪些呢?北京协和医院皮肤科陈金波做出了回答。

黄褐斑

也俗称蝴蝶斑、肝斑,它一般是在颧骨部位的大片形状不规则的淡黄色斑。黄褐斑的出现多与内分泌有关,尤其是和女性雌激素水平有关,因此月经不调、妊娠、吃避孕药或肝功能不好以及慢性肾病都容易出现本病。此外日晒和精神因素也会加重本病。孕妇常常在妊娠3个月以后出现黄褐斑,多数人在孩子出生以后,自己的月经恢复正常时就逐渐消退了。如果长期不退,需要进行治疗。此外本病也偶尔见于男性。

雀斑

一般是有遗传倾向的,往往自幼即有,皮肤白的人容易有雀斑。在白种人中基本上100%的人都有雀斑。雀斑多数分布在鼻梁和鼻子两侧,常常是米粒到黄豆大小的褐色斑点。到了青春期颜色会更明显,而且夏天太阳晒后颜色加深,冬季数米减少,色变淡老年斑一般40岁左右的人,外露部位出现一些褐色斑,开始表面比较光滑,时间长了,表面会变粗糙。长期日晒会加速老年斑形成,因此如果从年轻的时候就注意防晒,能防止和延缓日后出现老年斑。

色素痣

许多女性朋友面部有黑色的小斑或者黑色的丘疹,这种是色素痣,它是痣细胞的一种良性增生,往往发生于儿童或青春期。

黑变病

这种面部的色素沉着主要因为面部应用了不合适的含有光敏物质的化妆品,及进一步的日晒有关。再加上一些按摩刺激会导致加重。

颧部褐青色痣

颧部褐青色痣是由于在胚胎发育期,黑素细胞由神经脊向表皮转移时,未能正常通过表皮,真皮交接,停留在真皮内形成的一种好发于面部的色素性疾病。主要特点是颧部及颞部对称分布的、直径1~5毫米左右、黑灰色斑点。斑点之间可见正常皮肤,眼、口腔黏膜无损害,患者也没有任何自觉症状。多发于女性,发病年龄多在16~40岁,部分病人有家族史。口服药物及外用药物祛斑药无效,应该与黄褐斑区别。

太田痣、蒙古斑

也就是我们常说的黑色的胎记,这种疾病的病因是由于胚胎发育的时候,部分黑素细胞掉队,停留在真皮导致的,有一定的遗传因素。太田痣的褐色斑位于颜面一侧,可以累及同侧的巩膜,一般不能自然消失,而且随着年龄增长可以面积扩大,到青春期后基本稳定。而蒙古斑主要见于儿童的腰骶部或臀部,在出生时即有,几年后可然消退。

炎症后色素沉着

皮肤急性和慢性炎症后一般也可发生色素沉着,如一些面部痤疮或银屑病患者在愈合后面部会留有星星点点或一片一片的色素沉着。黑皮肤的人色素沉着较重,持续时间长。皮肤色素沉着轻重与炎症的程度似乎关系不大,而取决于皮肤病本身的性质。一些皮肤病发生色素沉着常见而明显,而另一些皮肤病则较轻微。

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