盆腔炎的饮食调护,营养

老年人应讲究点“营养”

营养作为健康的支柱,已越来越引起人们的重视。饮食和营养是保证老年人精力充沛、身心健康、延年益寿的物质基础。长期以来一些陈旧的观念使不少老年人产生年纪大了不需讲究营养的想法。但也有些老年人怕身体发胖和胆固醇增高,表现为这不敢吃,那不敢尝,其结果是直接影响老年人的健康。人体器官功能和细胞正常代谢都有赖于必需的营养的供给,营养不足可以引起许多疾病并使人衰老,营养过剩也会给老年人带来问题。诸如肥胖、高血压、冠心病、糖尿病、胆囊疾患、动脉硬化等。饮食过度和体重过重与结肠癌、前列腺癌、乳腺癌等发病有关。丰盛的饮食不一定能延长寿命。

老年人摄取营养既不能缺乏也不能超量。老年人要讲究营养是由其特殊的生理状况所决定的。老年人生理变化的特点是衰老,即机体的各个器官系统衰老退化,如由于神经系统衰退除对外界环境反应迟钝外,另对体内代谢功能的调节减弱,影响了对某些营养素的吸收利用,如老年人储存糖原的能力降低,肝糖原变少,一旦葡萄糖不足,容易发生低血糖昏迷。其他如心血管衰老使胆固醇和载脂蛋白代谢失常而加快动脉硬化。

肾功能退化易使某些维生素和无机盐丢失,而无机盐沉积又使老年人更容易发生肾结石,膀胱结石等。消化器官的退化,使胃张力变弱,肠蠕动减弱,消化液分泌的减少,又直接影响营养的消化、吸收和利用。 老年人营养供给不足、热量不够会加剧体内蛋白质的分解,使老年人消瘦、体弱、加快衰老进程。老年人饮食质量不好,种类不全易发生营养不良和贫血,如维生素B1不足会影响对碳水化合物的利用,维生素A不足使老年人视力衰退快,皮肤易干枯,毛囊角质化。 反之,摄入食物过多,使体内脂肪堆积,含氮物质增多,反而加重心血管、消化、泌尿系统负担。因此当今的老年人应讲究营养结构的合理性和科学性。选自《中国中医药报》

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