老人肺炎

老人肺炎要警惕

人到老年,全身及呼吸道的免疫机能减退;患慢性支气管炎、肺结核、肺气肿、糖尿病等的老病号都容易发生呼吸道感染,其中,肺炎在65岁以上老人死亡原因中居首位。由于许多老人伴有多种疾病,而肺炎又常累及多个脏器,就会出现所谓多米诺骨牌现象,以至不可救治。因此,要重视老人患肺炎的严重危害。

老人肺炎有几个明显的特点:首先,发病隐蔽。老人的机体反应能力低下,有时肺部病变已广泛,但发热不明显,体温多在37.5℃—38.5℃,咳嗽不剧烈,痰不易咳出,胸痛较轻,白细胞也不增高甚至偏低,或仅有嗜中性粒细胞偏高,往往需要借助X射线检查才能证实。

其次,肺炎以革兰氏阳性球菌为常见致病菌,但基础疾病多或反复感染的老人,革兰氏阴性杆菌感染的几率明显增加。因此,用药时针对革兰氏阳性球菌,但必须兼顾革兰氏阴性杆菌。

如果老人既往体健,没有基础疾病且轻度感染,可选择青霉素类药物静脉滴注,用药时应把每日总剂量分3—4次给药。对于伴有基础疾病的轻、中度感染的老年患者,一般感染程度加重,革兰氏阴性杆菌感染率的几率增加,可考虑选择半合成青霉素与β-内酰胺酶抑制剂、第2代头孢菌素、喹诺酮类抗生素等。重症肺炎同时伴有多种基础疾病,应及时用广谱高效抗生素。

第三,老人吸入性肺炎、真菌性肺炎多,常反复感染。

由于吞咽反射功能减退、吞咽障碍、呼吸道清除功能减退等因素,使吸入性肺炎在老人中发病率明显增高。治疗首选第3代头孢菌素与甲硝唑或替硝唑。由于免疫功能减退,有的老人用过多种抗生素,很容易出现菌群失调而继发感染,还常见肺部真菌感染。使用抗生素时,最好联合使用氟康唑预防二重感染。对反复感染的老人,还要注意最近使用抗生素的情况,同一类抗生素近期重复使用容易导致耐药。

最后,老人接种肺炎球菌疫苗和流感疫苗能有效地预防肺炎。肺炎球菌多糖疫菌(PPV)能抵抗23种肺炎球菌的攻击。流感疫苗的广泛接种也使得流感杆菌脑膜炎的发生率明显下降,预防肺炎有效率为53%。

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