糖友该持有“乐活族”新理念

“乐活族”是一个西方传来的新兴生活形态族群,以健康及自给自足的形态过生活,其核心理念为“健康、快乐、环保、可持续”。他们吃健康的食物与有机蔬菜、穿天然材质的棉麻衣物、骑自行车或步行、练瑜伽健身、听心灵音乐等,通过消费和衣食住行的生活实践,使自己更有活力。

有关专家指出,“乐活族”的理念,同样适用于糖尿病人群,具体而言,就是平衡膳食和适量运动。
干预得当糖尿病前期可转归
糖耐量减低是介于正常血糖水平与糖尿病之间的一种中间状态。正常健康人的血糖水平为:空腹血糖小于6.1毫摩尔/升,餐后2小时血糖小于7.8毫摩尔/升。如果一个人没有糖尿病症状,空腹血糖和餐后2小时血糖均超过正常水平,而又不够糖尿病诊断标准,即称为“糖耐量减低”或“糖尿病前期”。
有研究显示,糖耐量减低常合并多种代谢危险因素,最常见的是肥胖、血糖高、血压高、血脂异常、血尿酸高及微量白蛋白尿。糖耐量减低者的转归有3种可能:一种是转变为真正的糖尿病;一种是保持现状;还有一种是恢复正常。而糖耐量减低者如果听之任之,每年会有5%~15%的人步入糖尿病患者的“行列”,但只要干预得当,完全可恢复正常。
管住嘴平衡膳食是基础
在饮食干预中,一定要做到平衡膳食,即①以谷类为主; ②主食多样不过量,多吃杂粮; ③食盐限量在每天6克以内,尤其是高血压病人更应如此; ④多吃蔬菜(每日摄入量不少于400~500克)和水果(每日100~200克); ⑤减少膳食脂肪,增加优质蛋白,如鱼类、禽类、瘦肉等动物性食物,多吃豆类及其制品; ⑥对于身体并不肥胖的糖尿病前期人群来说,在保证每天每公斤体重30卡热量饮食的前提下,应限制糖和酒的摄入,而超重或肥胖者在此基础上还要减肥,即每月减0.5~1公斤,直至达到标准体重。
迈开腿适量运动是重点
在运动干预上,提倡适量运动,每天至少散步半小时或做相似能量消耗的运动,不宜进行剧烈运动。
运动原则:最好选择简单、方便、不需要特殊设备和投入,且利于长期坚持的运动,如散步、快走、慢跑、做操、打太极拳、扭秧歌等。
运动强度:因人而异,循序渐进,一般宜从散步、做操、打太极拳等低强度运动开始,逐渐过渡到登山、骑车、跳绳、爬楼等中等强度运动。

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