牛蒡根

牛蒡根

牛蒡根,中药名,功能有:祛风热,消肿毒。治风毒面肿,头晕,咽喉热肿,齿痛,咳嗽,消渴,痈疽疮疥。

牛蒡根 – 概述

牛蒡原产亚洲,公元940年前后,由中国传入日本。在日本经过多年选育,出现很多品种。目前栽培和食用牛蒡的国家和地区,主要是日本和台湾。

牛蒡又名大力子、黑萝卜、万把钩、东洋人参,牛菜,为菊科二年生草本植物。每100克牛蒡中含有蛋白质4.7克,脂肪0.8克,糖3克,能量160千焦(38千卡),粗纤维2.4克,钙242毫克,磷61毫克,铁7.6毫克,胡萝卜素3.9毫克,维生素C25毫克。牛蒡可用来防治头痛、烦闷、金疮、皮肤、搔痒等症。牛蒡中可分离出一种广效的抗癌物质牛蒡酚,牛蒡的热水提取物也显示了较强的抗癌活性。依中医学的观点,牛蒡的功能是疏散风热、消肿解毒、预防癌症及动脉硬化,改善便秘。所有根菜类蔬菜中,植物纤维含量最多的是牛蒡,它的水溶纤维和不溶性纤维各占一半,可以使乳酸菌更活泼,彻底发挥改善便秘的功效,木质素是牛蒡所含的最多植物纤维的一种,它具有十分优异的抗菌作用。

中国《现代中药学大辞典》中,把牛蒡解释为它具有可促进生长,抑制肿瘤,抵抗菌类和真菌的植物,其胡萝卜素含量达胡萝卜的110倍,蔬菜中排第二。在根类植物中,其蛋白质和钙及植物纤维含量最多。植物纤维有助于体内垃圾的清除,牛蒡中含有预防癌症消除致癌物质的成份。此外,牛蒡还有降压作用,对高血脂,糖尿病,风湿病,性功能低下,肥胖等有较好的改善作用。

《本草纲目》称“牛蒡”(又名大力子)是两年生草本植物,其子、其根均可入药,也可食用。《本草经蔬》称其为“散风除热解毒三要药”。《本草纲目》称其“通十二经脉,洗五脏恶气,久服轻身耐老”。牛蒡享有蔬菜之王的美誉,在日本可和人参媲美,它是一种营养价值极高的保健食品,它全身是宝,富含菊糖、纤维素、蛋白质、钙、磷、铁等人体所需要的多种矿物质、氨基酸,其中胡萝卜素比胡萝卜高110倍。

牛蒡药名:牛蒡根。
汉语拼音:niu bang gen
英文名:Great Burdock Achene, Root of Great Burdock
别名:恶实根、鼠粘根、牛菜。
来源:菊科植物牛蒡的根。。
采集:10月间采挖2年以上的根,洗净晒干。
药材:根呈纺锤状,肉质而直,皮部黑褐色,有皱纹,内呈黄白色;味微苦而性粘。
性味:苦,寒、无毒。
归经:归肺经;心经。
主治:祛风热,消肿毒。治风毒面肿,头晕,咽喉热肿,齿痛,咳嗽,消渴,痈疽疮疥。

牛蒡根 – 药理作用

1,清肠通便的作用。牛蒂的膳食纤维可以促进大肠蠕动,帮助排便,降低体内胆固醇,减少毒素、废物在 体内积存,有预防和治疗便秘的功能。

2,降血压的作用。牛蒡根中所含有的牛蒡甙能使血管扩张、血压下降。

3,抗菌作用。牛蒡中含有抗菌成分,主要抗金黄色葡萄球菌,最小抑菌浓度为4000μg/ml。

4,降血糖作用。牛蒂中含有菊糖,其水提物能显著而持久地降低大鼠血糖,能增高碳水化合物耐受量。

5,利尿及泻下作用。牛蒡甙有轻度的利尿及泻下作用,能引起小鼠的轻度举尾反应。

6,抗肿瘤作用。牛蒡苦素具有抗癌作用,能抑制癌细胞中磷酸果糖基酶的活性,牛蒡甙元亦有抗癌活性。

7,治疗肾炎的作用。牛蒡甙和牛蒡酚有抗肾炎活性,能有效地治疗急性进行性肾炎和慢性肾小球肾炎

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