无花果

无花果 – 生命之果

无花果(Fig),学名:Ficus carica Linn.,桑科榕属,落叶灌木或乔木。原产欧洲地中海沿岸和中亚,西汉引入中国。无花果具有很高的营养价值,它的果实富含糖、蛋白质、氨基酸、维生素和矿质元素。无花果含有苹果酸、柠檬酸、脂肪酶、蛋白酶、水解酶等,能帮助人体对食物的消化。未成熟果实的乳浆中含有补骨脂素、佛柑内酯等活性成分。

无花果 – 形态特征

无花果无花果(Ficus L.),又名天仙果、明目果、映日果等。无花果生长势强,并有多次生长习性,幼树新梢及徒长枝当年生长量可达2m以上;萌芽力、发枝力都较弱,骨干枝生长明显,其上潜伏芽较多,且寿命很长,可达数十年,当重剪时潜伏芽便迅速萌发而形成新树冠。

无花果为落叶小乔木或灌木,可高达12m,树皮光滑,灰白色或略带褐色,全株具乳管,可分泌白色乳汁。干皮灰褐色,平滑或不规则纵裂。小枝粗壮,托叶包被幼芽,托叶脱落后在枝上留有极为明显的环状托叶痕。

单叶、互生、具长柄,叶片大,厚膜质,宽卵形或近球形,长10~20cm。上面粗糙,下面有短毛,暗绿色,常有3~7裂,冬季落叶后在枝条上留下三角形的大型叶痕。边缘有波状齿。叶腋内可形成2~3芽,其中小而呈圆锥形的为叶芽,其他大而圆者为花芽;花单性,淡红色,埋藏于隐头花序中。

无花果可食部分是由花托肥大而成的聚合果,单花及由其发育的瘦果隐生于肉质花托内部,外观上似不花而实,故称“无花果”;果实有扁圆形、球形、梨形或坛形数种,果皮色泽亦有绿、黄、红、紫红之分,但多为黄色。果肉多呈黄色、浅红色或深红色,单果重因品种不同为0.035~O.15kg不等,多为0.08kg左右。

肉持花序托有短梗,单生于叶腋;雄花生于瘿花序托内面的上半部,雄蕊3;雌花生于另一花序托内。聚花果梨形,熟时黑紫色;瘦果卵形,淡棕黄色。

花期4~5月,果自6月中旬至10月均可成花结果

药用价值

1,果实中含有大量的果胶和维生素,果实吸水膨胀后,能吸附多种化学物质。所以食用无花果后,能使肠道各种有害物质被吸附,然后排出体外,能净化肠道,促进有益菌类增殖,抑制血糖上升,维持正常胆固醇含量,迅速排出有毒物质。

2,无花果含有丰富的蛋白质分解酶、脂酶、淀粉酶和氧化酶等酶类,它们都能促进蛋白质的分解。所以,当人们多食了富含蛋白质的荤食以后,以无花果做饭后的水果,有帮助消化的良好作用。

3,果实除了开胃、助消化之外,还能止腹泻、治咽喉痛。在浴盆中放入干燥的无花果叶片,有暖身和防治神经痛与痔瘘、肿痛的效果,同时还具有润滑皮肤的美容作用。

4,无花果中含有多种抗癌物质,是研究抗癌药物的重要原料。

日本科学家从无花果汁中提取苯甲酫、佛手柑内脂、补骨酯素等抗癌物质,这些物质对癌细胞抑制作用明显,尤其对胃癌有奇效。原苏联专家曾用小白鼠作试验,抑癌率为43%~64%。据南京农业大学和江苏肿瘤防治研究所的试验,无花果对EAC瘤株、S180瘤株、Lewis瘤株和HAC瘤株的抑癌率分别为53.8%、41.82%、48.85%和44.4%。胃癌病人服用无花果提取液后病情明显好转,镇痛效果也十分明显。

5,在中药学中,无花果性味甘平,擅长清热解毒消肿,且具健胃清毒润肺的功效。根据《全国中草药汇编》记载,无花果的根、叶、果实均可入药。果实的药材名聚花果。

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