姜黄

姜黄 – 行气破瘀

姜黄(拉丁学名:Curcuma longa L.)又名:郁金、宝鼎香、毫命、黄姜等。

姜黄芭蕉目,姜科、姜黄属多年生草本植物,株高1~1.5m,根茎很发达,根粗壮,末端膨大呈块根;叶片长圆形或椭圆形,叶顶端短渐尖;苞片卵形或长圆形,淡绿色,顶端钝,花冠淡黄色;花期8月。

姜黄既有药用价值,又可以作食品调料。辛香轻淡,略带胡椒、麝香味及甜橙与姜之混合味道,略有辣味、苦味,辛辣感。常用作调味品和黄色着色剂,是家庭使用的普通调味料,用于咖喱粉、调味料等。

姜黄辛、苦,温,归脾、肝经,姜黄能破血行气,通经止痛。姜黄用于胸胁剌痛,闭经,症瘕,风湿肩臂疼痛,跌扑肿痛。

药理研究

1,降血脂作用

姜黄醇或醚提取物、姜黄素和挥发油灌胃,对实验性高脂血症大鼠和家兔都有明显的降血浆总胆固醇和B-脂蛋白的作用,并能降低肝胆固醇,纠正a-和B-脂蛋白比例失调,但对内源性胆固醇无影响;对降血浆甘油三酯的作用更为显著,能使血浆中甘油三酯降低至正常水平以下。高蔗糖饮食能引起大鼠产生高脂血症,姜黄素能对抗此高脂血症产生。灌胃姜黄素能降低肝重,减少肝中甘油三酯、游离脂肪酸、磷脂含量及血清总甘油三酯、VLDL+LDL甘油三酯,HDL甘油三酯、VLDL+LDL胆固醇和血中游离脂肪酸的含量,也能提高血清总胆固醇和HDL胆固醇含量。用肝匀浆体外保温法,以14C-醋酸为底物试验,初步结果表明,姜黄素能抑制脂肪酸的合成。

2,抗肿瘤作用

用鼠Dalton氏淋巴腹水瘤细胞进行组织培养及在体实验,姜黄醇提物能抑制癌细胞生长。在0.4mg/ml时能抑制中国仓鼠卵巢细胞生长,并对淋巴细胞和Dalton氏淋巴细胞具有细胞毒性作用,并能减少动物肿瘤的生长,其活性成分主要是姜黄素。在巴豆油促进下,7,12-二甲基苯蒽能诱发小鼠产生乳头癌,姜黄素可明显减少在此情况下乳头癌产生的机会,也能抑制由2O-甲基氯蒽诱导的肿瘤形成。姜黄素还能减少突变原致癌的可能性。姜黄素还能抑制TPA(12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)的诱癌作用。当局部应用10μmol/L姜黄素时,对由5nmol/L TPA 诱发的鸟苷酸脱羧酶活性的抑制率达91%;10μmol/L的姜黄素与2nmol/L的TPA-起局部应用,对TPA激发的3H-胸腺嘧啶嵌合入表皮DNA中的抑制率为49%,其抑制率与浓度有关。因此,姜黄素可能作为一种抗癌剂。

3,抗炎作用

姜黄素能对抗角义菜胶诱发的大鼠脚趾肿胀,在30mg/kg范围内有剂量依赖性,而剂量在60mg/kg 时,则抑制这种抗炎作用。姜黄素钠可逆地抑制尼古丁、乙酰胆碱、5-羟色胺、氯化钡及组胺诱发的离体豚鼠回肠收缩,类似于非固醇类抗炎药。

4,抗病原微生物作用

体外试验,姜黄素百分之一浓度时,对细球菌(Micrococuspyogenesvar. Aureus)有抑制作用。挥发油有强力抗真菌作用。姜黄能延长接种病毒小鼠的生存时间。

5,对心血管系统的影响

姜黄素静脉注射对血压无明显影响,对肾上腺素、组胺和乙酰胆碱引起的血压亦无明显影响。用姜黄素灌胃能对抗垂体后叶素静脉注射引起的大鼠心电图S-T、T波变化,灌胃还能增加小鼠心肌营养性血流量。姜黄素对血小板聚集及血液粘度有明显影响,正常人体外实验姜黄素浓度为1×10(-4)mol/L,显著抑制血小板聚集,抑制率为35.4%(P<0.01)。大鼠灌胃 5天后(剂量分别为20、40、60、80mg/(kg.天)与对照组相比,血小板聚集作用减弱,血浆粘度和全血粘度降低。其中以40mg/(kg.天)组抑制血小板聚集作用最强,抑制率为34.6%(P<0.05)。继续增加给药量,抑制作用未见进行性增强。在低切变率(37.5秒-1)条件下,降低全血和血浆粘度作用显著,而高切变率(150秒-1)时,无显著性差异。

6,利胆作用

姜黄提取物、姜黄素、挥发油、姜黄酮以及姜烯、龙脑和倍半萜醇等,都有利胆作用,能增加胆汁的生成和分泌,并能促进胆囊收缩,而以姜黄素的作用为最强。

7,对终止妊娠的作用

姜黄制成100%(生药1g/ml)和200%水煎剂。小鼠在妊娠早期(6-7天)、中期(10-14天)和晚期(16-18天)分别腹腔注射或皮下注射姜黄水煎剂10g/kg,每日1次,连续2天。早、中期妊娠小鼠在给药1次后,次日清晨可见阴道出血,解剖可见子宫内有坏死、变性胚胎,晚期妊娠小鼠在给药1次后,大部分在24小时内娩出小鼠。表明腹腔注射或皮下注射给药对小鼠各期妊娠都有明显作用(口服50g/kg无效),终止妊娠率为90-100%,而对照组胚胎发育正常。家兔于妊娠早期(8-10天)、中期(13-15天)和晚期(23-25天)腹腔注射或皮下注射姜黄水煎剂8g/kg,每日1次,连续2-3天,8只早期妊娠家兔和4只中期妊娠家兔全部终止妊娠,4只晚期妊娠家兔亦全部流产。对照组6只家兔全部正常妊娠。以未成熟小鼠子宫增重法,测定姜黄的雌激素与抗雌激素活性,表明姜黄水煎剂10g/kg 腹腔注射 或 皮下注射无雌激素活性和抗雌激素活性。姜黄10g/kg所致的终止动物早期妊娠作用可被黄体酮(1mg/鼠)拮抗,姜黄10g/kg还可明显抑制假孕小鼠创伤性子宫蜕膜瘤的生长,因此推测姜黄引起动物早期流产作用的机理,可能是由于它具有抗孕激素活性和宫缩作用。

姜黄粉依次用石油醚、95%乙醇和水提取物,于妊娠第1-7天连续灌胃,三种提取物的剂量为100mg/kg时,对雌性大鼠的终止妊娠率分别为100,70和100%。出生的幼鼠无畸形。上述3种提取物对硫酸铜诱发的兔排卵均无影响。

8,抗氧化作用

以NIH小鼠脑、心、肝、肾、脾等器官制成一定浓度匀浆液,以不饱和脂肪酸被氧化成过氧化脂质时,过氧化脂质很快又转变成丙二醛,在加热条件下丙二醛与硫代巴比妥酸反应生成红色化合物的原理进行检测,结果姜黄素对五大脏器的脂质过氧化作用都有明显对抗作 用。各脏器匀浆浓度分别为,脑3.39%,心1.16%,肝(1)3.97%,肝(2)3.94%,肾2.08%,脾1.67%;姜黄素剂量(mg/100ml)分别为,脑0.31-0.123,心20.4-0.8,肝(1)20.4-0.8,肝(2)0.8-0.128,肾20.4-0.8,脾0.8-0.123,与空白对照比较,除脾中剂量0.32、低剂量0.123P>0.005,脑高剂量0.32 P<0.01外,其余均为P<0.001。亦有报道,姜黄素 和4-Hydroxycinnamoyl(geruloyl)methane,bis(4-Hydroxycinnamoyl)methane均有抗氧作用,以姜黄素最好,对亚油酸的空气氧化的50%抑制浓度为1.83×10(-2)%(硫巴比妥值)和1.15×10(-2)%(过氧化物值),均高于维生素E。

9,光效应作用

姜黄素在通常情况下杀菌能力较弱,但当给于光照射时,微克量的姜黄素就显示出很强的光毒性反应。革兰氏阴性菌对于姜黄素光毒性的抵抗力比革兰氏阳性强。姜黄素的这种光毒性只有在有氧情况下才能产生。因此姜黄素可能作为一种光敏化药物应用于牛皮癣、癌症、细菌和病毒性疾病的光疗。姜黄素还能对易光解的药物起稳定的作用。如对硝苯吡啶的光稳定作用特别强,使它半衰期延长6倍,可增强其疗效。

10,其它作用

姜黄素可抑制PGS的生物合成。姜黄还可杀蝇。姜黄的氯仿和乙醚提取物体外对发癣菌和石膏样小孢子菌有抑制作用。Turmeronol A和B可抑制大豆脂氧合酶,其IC50分别为16和19μmol/L。这二种化合物在-200ppm浓度时可防止亚油酸的自动氧化。

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