骨关节炎

什么是骨关节炎?

骨关节炎是一种常见的慢性关节疾病,其主要病变是关节软骨的退行性变和继发性骨质增生,多见于中老年人,女性多于男性,好发在负重较大的膝关节、髋关节、脊柱及手指关节等部位。

骨关节炎病是常见一种关节病变,其患病率随着年龄而增加,女性比男性多发。骨关节炎以手的远端和近端指关节节、膝、肘和肩关节以及脊柱关节容易受累,而腕踝关节较少发病。骨关节炎的主要病理改变为软骨退行性变性和消失,以及关节边缘韧带附着处和软骨下骨质反应性增生形成骨赘。骨关节炎现代医学认为主要与患病年龄增大,内分泌紊乱有关,也可由外伤,姿势不正造成,遗传因素对本病也有一定因素。

临床表现:发病缓慢,部位局限,活动多则加重,休息即可缓解;晨僵时间不超过半小时;受累关节以疼痛和压痛为主,活动时关节有摩擦音,严重者可发生关节畸形。颈椎或脊椎病变可引起神经受压或刺激症状。X线片检查有助于诊断。

预后及预防:骨关节炎大多发病缓慢,关节软骨退形性变为主,大多经过积极治疗可改善关节功能,极小数形成功能障碍。骨关节炎急性发作时,最主要的治疗是休息,特别强调受累关节充分休息。一旦关节炎症状消除,应尽快恢复受累关节锻炼。

由于骨关节炎与肥胖、脱钙、维生素A和D缺乏有关,因此,在饮食起居上要注意以下几点:

  1. 要适当增加户外活动、锻炼、尽量避免长期卧床休息。
  2. 进高钙食品,必要时补充钙剂。
  3. 超体重者宜控制饮食,减轻体重,以利于减轻关节负重。
  4. 蛋白质的摄入要有限度。
  5. 要增加多种维生素摄入,如维生素A、B、B1、B12、C和D等。

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